Avionics FAQ

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A Technical Standard Order (TSO) is a minimum performance standard for specific materials, parts, and appliances used on a civil aircraft.

A Parts Manfacturing Approval (PMA) is a combined design and production approval for modification and replacement articles for use on a civil aircraft.  A PMA appplication requires identification of the product on which the article is to be installed into. That typically requires a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) to show that the design of the article meets the airworthiness of the aircraft it is being installed into.  

The TSO allows the article to have broad installation possibilities. As a modificatiion and replacement article, the PMA article is designed for installation limited by the STC.

The current G5 STC relies on standard scan instruments being installed to assist in the unlikely event of a G5 failure. The certification requirements for primary vs. standby are different and rely on EFIS certifications. Also, the G5 is a PMA approved part not a TSO approved part.

As of 1/1/18, the following products can only be sold in new condition AND installed by an approved dealer:

  • G500 TXi series
  • G600 TXi series
  • G700 TXi series
  • G500H
  • GAD 43
  • GAD 43e
  • GAD 42
  • GNC 255 series
  • GNC 255
  • GRA 5500
  • GRA 55
  • GSR 56
  • GTN 625/635/650
  • GTN 750
  • GTS series
  • EIS TXi
  • GTX 3000
  • GTX 345 series
  • GTX 335 series
  • GTX 32
  • GTX 33
  • GTX 330
  • GWX 70 series
  • AOA System
  • Flightstream 110/210/510
  • GBB 54
  • GMA 35
  • GMA 350
  • GDL 84
  • GDL 88
  • GDL 69
  • GFC 500 series
  • GFC 600 series

 

 

The coaxial cable connected to the KA-131 is fitted and matched at the original time of manufacturing.  The cable and antenna are aligned as a single unit for minimum SWR. A tag stating this requirement is attached to the antenna however it may become detached at some point in the life cycle of the antenna. A label was placed on the antenna as well stating to not alter the cable. The cable is safety wired onto the antenna to further prevent someone from removing the cable from the antenna.  Please see images for refernence.

 

The -0102 is a product improvement of the -0101 that was discontinued in 2009.  The -0102 has improved receiver/transmitter audio capabilities. A Honeywell Service Information Letter released in 2009 indicates that the -0102 is a direct replacement for the -0101 and addresses the discontinuation of the -0101.
 

A ‘C’ check is a maintenance check usually performed on transport class aircraft.  It is usually performed every 20-24 months or after an amount of flight hours specified by the manufacturer.  It usually requires a large majority of the aircraft systems and components to be inspected for serviceability. The check can require an extensive tooling, test equipment, and special training.  A ‘C’ check will usually ground the aircraft for 10-15 days or more depending on the age and condition of the aircraft.  Other modifications or enhancements such as cabin or interior upgrades may be performed during a C check as well.

On the KX-155A and KX-165A radios, only the active part of the COMM display is visble while in direct tune mode.  This mode is also called ACTIVE ENTRY is another method of entering an operating frequency into the radio and is accessed by pushing and holding the COMM transfer button for 2 or more seconds.

Government Industry Data Exchange Program or GIDEP is a cooperative effort between government and industry members seeking to decrease or eliminate expenditures of resources by sharing important technical information during research, design, development, production and operational phases of the life cycle of systems, facilities and equipment.

The G5 electronic instrument is capable of operating as a primary attitude indicator, DG or HSI.

 

The STC approves the installation of the G5 in an existing instrument panel. In the attitude application, the G5 can replace an existing vacuum attitude indicator or rate-of-turn indicator. The G5 can also replace existing vacuum driven DGs or existing HSI, either standalone or in combination with a G5 attitude display. 


The G5 is designed to be installed into a standard 3” instrument hole in place of existing indicators . Other primary flight instruments remain in their current approved locations. Please note that the G5 cannot replace an existing primary attitude indicator that has a Flight Director. However, if the existing attitude indicator is interfaced to the autopilot and it does not include Flight Director, the existing attitude indicator can be moved to the rate of turn indicator location and G5 installed as the primary attitude indicator. Also, for installations that do not install a G5 as the replacement primary attitude indicator, the G5 can be installed as a second attitude indicator in place of the existing rate of turn indicator. However, if the existing rate of turn indicator is interfaced with the autopilot, it cannot be replaced by a G5. The G5 can only be installed in the locations specified in the STC. It is an installer’s responsibility to ensure the installation limitations are considered prior to modifying an aircraft.

Yes in November 2017, Garmin released a PMAd flush mount adapter plate for either single or dual installations. Part Number for ordering is 115-02733-00.  List Price is $99.95.

 



ADS-B Previously Asked Questions & Answers

Click on a question below to see the answer. Please note, as more questions are answered, this document will be updated to include them.
Check back often for even more ADS-B information. Need ADS-B Help?

A: BendixKing announced a modification to the CitationJet CNI 5000 using the KT-74 transponder and a remotely mounted WAAS GPS receiver. A package including the hardware, modified bezel, and STC will be available to authorized dealers. Please contact Southeast Aerospace to discuss ADS-B and upgrade options for the CitationJet.  

 

CNI 5000 ADS-B

 

A: Starting September 19, 2016, the FAA is offering a limited time, first-come, first-serve rebate for owners that meet the criteria. The detailed rebate information & process can be found on the FAA's ADS-B Rebate webpage.

"Beginning this month, the FAA will issue 20,000 rebates on a first-come, first-served basis for one year or until all 20,000 rebates are claimed - whichever comes first. The rebate is available only to owners of US registered, fixed wing, single engine piston aircraft that were first registered before January 1, 2016.

Aircraft owners who have a standard airworthiness aircraft may have a repair station or an appropriately-licensed A&P mechanic install the ADS-B equipment. Owners of aircraft certified as experimental or light sport must adhere to applicable regulations and established standards when installing ADS-B equipment.

Owners are only eligible for the rebate if they install the avionics after September 19, 2016, and within 90 days of the rebate reservation date. Aircraft owners will have 60 days after the scheduled installation date to validate their equipped by flying their aircraft, and will then be able to claim the rebate."

A: Yes, the RANGR Lite is meant for owner/operators who do not have an ES (Extended Squitter) upgradeable transponder or WAAS GPS in their aircraft. http://www.freeflightsystems.com/products/ads-b/978/rangr-transmitter The less expensive unit (TXL) is Transmit only while the other (XVRL) includes ADS-B In as well which will display (traffic and weather) on the GNS-430 but would be need to be interfaced.

A: First, we would recommend contacting a local Garmin dealer to discuss the following:

  • Upgrading your existing nav/com to a used GNS-530W or the newer GTN-750.
  • If you already have a Garmin transponder (i.e. GTX-330), then you should simply get the ES upgrade, interface to GNS-530W or GTN-750, along with a few other minor installation considerations, and get the shop to do the appropriate paperwork based on Garmin's AML STC.
  • If you do not have the GTX-330, then you should just consider pursuing one of the GDL systems from Garmin. Most likely the GDL88 which will give you In/Out capability. Same interface and installation considerations as above apply. Please note ADS-B In is not required for the mandate.

UPDATE

1/24/2017

Bendix/King, L3 and ACSS recently released the NXT-700 as form fit replacement for the MST-67A. It is DO-260B compliant to meet the ADS-B Out mandate.

A: In relation to ADS-B compliance for the MST-67A, Honeywell is developing the MST-100B. Please see attached brochure. Unfortunately, this is the only information that Honeywell has released regarding the MST-100B. Pricing and lead-time are to be announced sometime later this year by Honeywell. Regarding other options for the MST-67A, there are a few companies in the US that are developing solutions using the new Garmin GTX-3000 remote transponder.

Regarding ADS-B for the Garmin GTX transponders, the best solution is to simply have the units converted by Garmin to include the ES (Extended Squitter) upgrade. This upgrade is about $2000 approximately. We can process the upgrade for you or any other Garmin dealer can as well.
A: First, please reference the information Garmin provides in relation to the ES upgrade:

http://www.garmin.com/us/intheair/ads-b/seven-questions/

There is perhaps a misconception that simply having your Garmin GTX-330 transponder upgraded to include Extended Squitter capability is the only step for ADS-B Out compliance. As with almost all ADS-B installations, appropriate interfacing to other systems in the aircraft (ex. approved position source & altitude source) is required along with approved guidance material that indicates the airworthiness approval procedure followed for return to service of the aircraft (ex. AML STC). Garmin provides an Installation Manual with Approved Model List STC for its Aviation dealers. Authorized dealers should not be distributing the necessary data and paperwork for the ADS-B installation to non-dealers.

As with all ADS-B installations, Southeast Aerospace strongly recommends that you only contact and consult a trained, authorized avionics dealer.
A: No. Southeast Aerospace strongly recommends that you only contact and consult a trained, authorized avionics dealer for all ADS-B installations.

One of the reasons for much of the confusion, controversy, and misinformation surrounding ADS-B is due to those in the aviation realm who are minimalizing or ignoring key aspects of an ADS-B installation. Most if not all ADS-B installations are not a “box-swap” regardless of any advertising or information on the Internet stating as much. Even if you were to seek alternate, unauthorized methods to obtain ADS-B equipment or upgrades to existing equipment, you still need a way to get it in the aircraft and approved by the FAA. Most ADS-B product manufacturers only offer AML STCs they have to authorized dealers in their network.

If you want to be compliant and able to fly in 2020, then just get the job done right the first time. Unfortunately, some people in aviation always try to cut corners on avionics installations by underestimating the job at hand in hopes to save a buck. It never works out to your advantage no matter how it looks on the bottom line on the frontend of the job. The old saying holds true for ADS-B installations especially – “Pay Now or Pay Later”.

If you want your installation done right the first time legally and technically, then contact a trusted avionics shop that has formal training on ADS-B and the related products from the OEM. Or, contact the OEM and ask for a recommendation in your area. Most OEMs are more than happy to refer to a legitimate, quality dealer in your area.
Citation S550 equipped with: - Transponders MST-67A 066-01143-2101. Chance to update to ES?

- Garmin GPS400. Chance to update software to WAAS? Or maybe to replace with a GPS400W and link it with transponders? - FMS UNS-1L SCN 803.1. Citation Mustang C510 equipped with G1000 Integrated Flight Deck. It is a 2008 plane.

What can I do to get ADS-B at an affordable price?

A: Since the aircraft are operated in Spain, what region or ADS-B spec do you need to meet? (i.e. USA, DO-260B?)

Without knowing exactly what ADS-B requirement or mandate you might be trying to comply with, I can only provide information relative to what we know here in the USA in reference to ADS-B for Part 25 aircraft.

For the Citation 550, the MST-67A will be superseded by the MST-100B if/when Honeywell can produce and certify the MST-100B. I have attached the only details that we currently have on the MST-100B. Honeywell has not even released pricing on this unit yet, however, ideally it would be an ideal solution ultimately since it is said to be plug and play with the MST-67A. With a WAAS GPS interfaced it would meet all ADS-B mandates. Also, keep in mind, that your CAS-67 can be upgraded fairly easily to Change 7.1 via Honeywell sales bulletin upgrading the TPU-67A processor to the TPU-67B. There is a company that offers some STCs for Part 25 aircraft if your region requires an STC for the 7.1 upgrade - http://www.prostaraviation.com/

If the MST-100B does not pan out for some reason and/or Honeywell keeps delaying its release, then there is a company named Jettech that has released Garmin GTX 3000ES ADS-B capable transponder to its existing STC covering Garmin GTN install on Citation and Citation Jet aircraft equipped with TCAS II. In addition, the company amended its Garmin GTN autopilot coupled LPV FAA STC for the Citation 500 series to include all Primus 1000 equipped Bravo, Ultra, Encore and Excel aircraft. They do not have much information on their website about the ADS-B STC but I recently learned about it at the AEA convention last week - http://jettechllc.net/index.html

Regardless of what direction you might go in, you should most likely get your GPS-400 upgraded to the GPS-400W while Garmin is still offering the upgrade. It is relatively inexpensive at around $3000 USD. Most FANS type systems will require WAAS GPS input or accuracy ultimately. Plus, Garmin's WAAS interface tis very compatible with most ADS-B solutions. Regarding the Citation Mustang C510 equipped with G1000, Garmin is still working on this solution. We assume it will include the GTX-3000 transponder(s) as this aircraft will require a 1090 MHz, (not 978 MHz UAT) system. I would continue to monitor Garmin's website for announcements relating to the G1000.
A: In most cases, if you already have Garmin equipment, the easiest route to comply with ADS-B is to stay with Garmin. Based on what you gave me below, you would need to upgrade your GNS530 to the 530W (WAAS) and replace your GTX327 with the GTX330ES (Extended Squitter). Most shops will give you a trade-in value for the GTX327 and there are some used GTX330ES units out there on the market. This route will make you compliant with the 1090ES part of ADS-B compliance.

Otherwise, if you choose to keep the GTX327 and go with the GDL88 or GDL84 UAT (978 compliance), you will still have to get your GNS530 upgraded to WAAS and then handle some additional considerations.

A: Unfortunately, the GPS in the KMD-150 does not comply with any of the requirements for GPS performance in the latest ADS-B mandate or DO-260B. More or less, although it is not specifically referred as such, current WAAS GPS receivers are the only GPS receivers that meet the performance requirement needed for ADS-B Out.

Considering your current situation, here are a few possible scenarios for you to comply:

  1. Keep the KMD-150 with GPS as a stand-alone navigation aid and pursue the KGX-150 with internal GPS. This would of course require installing a separate WAAS GPS antenna on your aircraft for the KGX-150. In addition, you would not receive any of the ADS-B In benefits since the KMD-150 is not an interface for that. However, there are many options to display ADS-B In information on anything from smartphones, tablets, etc.
  2. Replace the KMD-150 with some sort of Garmin GNS or GTN navigator which will meet the approved position source requirements for ADS-B. I would recommend their GDL-84 or 88 boxes for the UAT portion of the equation however there are a few other manufacturers offering less expensive UAT solutions like Free Flight with their Ranger Lite product.


The second option is obviously going to be more expensive but gives you a little more versatility and more capability in your aircraft. I only included UAT (978) options because I am assuming that you are flying below 18,000 feet.

A few questions related to the KGX 150 :

  1. Can this unit be paired with the KT-76C transponder?
  2. What will the Wi-Fi option cost?
  3. With our configuration, what antennas will need to be installed to meet the ADSB-Out requirements?
  4. Will an additional antenna be required to facilitate ADS-B-In?

There are a few things to be aware of with all UAT installations. These units require a control device and a switch to place them in air/ground mode. The switch is not a major issue and is a minor cost. However, the controller is additional if the aircraft is not already equipped with a transponder and/or display (MX20 for example).

As you’ll see below, yes, the KT-76C will pair with the unit via the antennas. Basically the UAT will sense the XPDR. This will enable you to send the Mode A and IDENT information to the UAT unit. However, you are still required per the FAA to have a way to know your ADS-B status. If a suitable display such as the Garmin MX20, Aspen EFD1000 or the KSN 770 is not installed, then a remote control unit is required. The KGX Control Panel list price is currently $619. Depending on the aircraft and the kind of flying, there are a lot of factors and options to consider.

  1. Can this unit be paired with the KT-76C transponder?
    • Yes
  2. What will the Wi-Fi option cost?
    • The Wi-Fi option will run around $349 list for parts.
  3. With our configuration, what antennas will need to be installed to meet the ADS-B-Out requirements?
    • Per the STC, you will be required one external WAAS/GPS antenna and at least one UAT antenna.
  4. Will an additional antenna be required to facilitate ADS-B-In?
    • No, as long as the unit purchased is the transceiver. However, you will need a suitable display for the "In" without the Wi-Fi.
A: In regards to your RV-6A, upgrading to the GTX 330ES will take care of your 2020 requirements for ADS-B. As you already have a GTX 327 and a GNS 430W, you may be more pleased with the installation of a GDL 88 standard. The prices of the units are similar even once you add the new antenna for the GDL-88 (give or take about $150). The labor to install the GDL 88 will be more, but with the GDL 88 you will get free weather and traffic on the GNS 430W. This would then free up the Garmin 696 and the GDL 39 for your Luscombe.

In regards to your 1947 Luscombe 8-E, your options are not as straight forward. You have no WAAS/GPS receiver in the aircraft so one of the UAT units like the GDL 88/84 from Garmin, NGT-2500 from L-3, or the RANGR 978 from Freeflight will be your best option to give the ADS-B Out. The RANGR 978, with its control head (required per the installation manual), may be the least expensive option but all three will have a fair amount of labor for the installation.
A: Since SEA is a Rockwell Collins dealer, we can perform this modification. Some of the equipment for this modification can be sold in serviceable condition, but we cannot sell factory new without performing the upgrade ourselves. There are several components required to perform this modification as well as wiring changes and additions. We’re happy to discuss this modification in more detail with you and gather the information necessary to provide you with an accurate proposal.

A: Portable ADS-B Out systems, also known as "suitcase" units, should not be operated (transmitting) aboard any aircraft. While marketing associated with these units may imply approval for use by way of an FCC license, the FAA prohibits their use for the following reasons:

  1. The positioning of portable, suction-cup GPS antennas associated with these units often require they be affixed to front or side windows or glare shield to obtain a usable signal. Such antenna placement obstructs the pilot's view. Connecting wiring also interferes with aircraft controls and instruments.
  2. ADS-B Out avionics require a valid Mode S code to be transmitted to operate properly with ATC automation and other ADS-B aircraft. Mode S codes, also known as the ICAO code, are assigned to an aircraft during registration and then programmed into transponders and ADS-B Out avionics. Mode S codes remain static until a change in aircraft registration or identification (N-number) occurs. Portable units require users to input the Mode S code assigned to each aircraft flown. A high number of Mode S code entry errors have occurred with this procedure, which prevent proper target correlation within ATC automation systems (target drops/traffic conflict alerts), which have resulted in increased workload and unnecessary distractions for pilots and controllers.
  3. The positioning of ADS-B antenna is also vital in the quality of the signal that is transmitted, and if capable, received by the ADS-B device. There have been a number of aircraft identified using portable ADS-B devices that result in degraded performance due solely to poor antenna location.


Source: FAA - https://www.faa.gov/nextgen/equipadsb/faq/#q8

A: The KLN-94 is not a WAAS GPS, nor is it upgradeable to one. We recommend the KT-74, but if you decide to upgrade to a GPS400W or GNS340W, then you would want to go with a GTX-330.
A: There is no ADS-B In display option for a Honeywell MFRD. An iPad or other Flight Bag is the only option.